The Dipor Bil is reported to provide, directly or indirectly, its natural resources for the livelihood of twelve indigenous villages (1,200 families) located in its precincts. Freshwater fish is a vital protein and source of income for these communities; the health of these people is stated to be directly dependendent on the health of this wetland ecosystem. Natural and anthropogenic causes for the deterioration of the bil are many.
According to a Report on visit to Dipor bil in Assam by the Planning Commission, Government of India, “It is reported that the past two decades have witnessed a lot of transformation in the ecological and social character of Dipor Bil. Some of the natural and anthropogenic activities that are threatening the Dipor Bil include:
- Construction of railway line along the southern boundary of the Dipor Bil.
- Industrial development within the periphery of the Dipor Bil.
- Large scale encroachment within the Dipor Bil area.
- Allotment of government vacant land to private parties by Government settlement department.
- Bric kiln and soil cutting within the bil ecosystem.
- Hunting, trapping and killing of wild birds and mammals within and in the adjoining areas of Dipor bil.
- Unplanned and destructive fishing practices without any control/regulation on mesh size, etc.
Large-scale encroachment, heavy siltation from the denuded hills surrounding the bil, accumulation of all sorts of filth and wastes from the Bharalu and Bahini rivers, unregulated fishing practices, invasion of aquatic weeds, industrial development within its periphery, construction of railway line along the southern boundary, quarrying within the bil ecosystem, etc., have pushed this once-pristine ecosystem to the brink of disappearance.”